Genetics and Epigenetics in Personalized Nutrition: Evidence, Expectations, and Experiences
Here, the state of evidence for the effect of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and resulting illnesses such as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases is summarized. This study also critically value the concepts of PN that are built around the new genetic avenue from both the academic and a commercial perspective and their effectiveness in causing sustained changes in diet, lifestyle, and for improving health. Despite almost 20 years of research and commercial direct-to-consumer offerings, evidence for the success of gene-based dietary recommendations is still generally lacking. This calls for new concepts of future PN solutions that incorporate more phenotypic measures and provide a panel of instruments (e.g., self- and bio-monitoring tools, feedback systems, algorithms based on artificial intelligence) that increases compliance based on the individual ́s physical and social environment and value system.